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Journal of Oregon Ornithology (JOO) Home Page

ISSN for Print Version of JOO: 1066-9450

JOO is a not-for-profit journal published by Gahmken (pronounced gahm' ken) Press, P.O. Box 1467, Newport, Oregon 97365 USA.

JOO is now archived as a collection in the Natural Resources section
of Oregon State University Libraries' highly rated ScholarsArchive@OSU digital repository.

Last modified: 26 July 2009

Contents of Gahmken Press' JOO Home Page. (Articles are in the JOO Collection at ScholarsArchive@OSU)

Goal of Journal of Oregon Ornithology (JOO)

Last modified: 29 June 2008

JOO is published by Gahmken Press, which is owned by Range Bayer of Bayer Research.

The goal of JOO is to publish abundance, presence, presence/absence, frequency of occurrence, arrival, and/or departure records of birds at individual sites in Oregon that are less than about 50 pages in length. Articles are based on systematic, repeated observations. Such site-specific information is needed for resource or species management, research, education, land-use decisions, or recreational wildlife viewing. These records are also essential to determine changes in bird communities over time. However, such records are lacking for many sites in Oregon. Longer articles can be published as individual monographs in Yaquina Studies in Natural History.

Ten or more systematic, repeated observations at a site, even if only of common birds, are particularly welcome. Observations prior to 1970 are also encouraged because few are available and they can be helpful in determining changes in bird populations.

This goal is useful because site-specific bird information is needed for resource or species management, research, education, land-use decisions, and/or recreational wildlife viewing. However, basic information about birds such as occurrence and arrival/departure dates is lacking for many sites in Oregon. Without systematic, written records detailing bird occurrence at a site, it is also not possible to determine which birds are present, when they occur, or changes in bird communities with time. Predictions of bird communities at a site can be wildly inaccurate.

Pooling of records is reduced in JOO. Census results are given individually. If there are many observations, then presence, presence/absence, or frequency records will often be pooled into semimonthly (e.g., 1-15th or 16th-end of month) or monthly periods.

Other journals generally do not publish observations with as much detail.

The purpose and background of JOO are discussed more in 1993 JOO 1:1-34.

JOO is not affiliated with or supported by Oregon Field Ornithologists or the "Oregon Fund for Ornithology," which was founded in September 1988 (1988 Oregon Birds 14[4]:315).

Six issues of JOO were published during 1993-1996. Hopefully, more will be published as time permits.

Searching Contents of JOO at ScholarsArchive@OSU and Index for No. 1-6

Last modified: 15 June 2008

To see contents of JOO at ScholarsArchive@OSU:

Although the Index to JOO No. 1-5 has been published in JOO, see the unpublished Index for JOO Nos. 1-6.

Availability of JOO

Last modified: 17 June 2008

Print Copies

The owner of Gahmken Press, Range Bayer of Bayer Research, has donated paper copies of JOO to the following libraries or institutions. The reader may be able to borrow a copy from them:

Lincoln County Historical Society (Newport, Oregon)
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Database (Corvallis, Oregon)
Oregon Historical Society Library (Portland, Oregon)
Oregon Natural Heritage Program (Portland, Oregon)
Oregon State University, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Guin Library (Newport, Oregon)
Oregon State University, Valley (formerly Kerr) Library (Corvallis, Oregon)
Point Reyes Bird Observatory Library (Stinson Beach, California)
Portland State University Library (Portland, Oregon)
Southern Oregon State College Library (Ashland, Oregon)
State of Oregon Library (Salem, Oregon)
University of Oregon Library (Eugene, Oregon)
University of Oregon, Oregon Institute of Marine Biology Library (Charleston, Oregon)
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology Library (Camarillo, California)
Wilson Ornithological Society Library, University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Michigan).

Internet Availability

The following is the history of the availability of JOO for free on the Internet:


A few paper copies of JOO were sold, but not enough to pay for the cost of their printing and distribution plus the printing and distribution of the donated copies.

Illustrations on Front Covers of JOO

Last modified: 23 March 2008

Front cover art is not included in the JOO collection at ScholarsArchive@OSU.

Noteworthy cover art includes:

Instructions to Authors for Preparing Articles for JOO

Last modified: 28 June 2008

General Instructions

CONTACT THE EDITOR FIRST. Before preparing a paper for JOO, an author is urged to contact the Editor (Range Bayer) with a rough outline of the article and samples of the data that will be the basis for the article. Early consultation will determine if the material is suitable for JOO. It will also allow the Editor to provide specific guidelines to make it easier for the author to efficiently write a paper acceptable for publication in JOO.

MATERIAL SUITABLE FOR JOO. JOO's main purpose is to archive data reports of repeated field observations at a site. Papers suitable for publication in JOO contain data that have not been previously published and include details of Oregon field studies of bird distribution, migration, abundance, etc. Ten or more repeated observations at a site, even if only of common birds, are particularly welcome. Theses will not be considered if they are or will be in a library; however, data gathered during thesis research but not included in the thesis may be acceptable.

COMPENSATION TO AUTHOR. An author will not be paid for an article published in JOO but will receive three free print copies of his or her published article.

NO PAGE CHARGES. The editor and owner of Gahmken Press is responsible for all costs of publishing JOO. An author will not be asked to pay page charges like some scientific journals do. For example, the journal Northwest Science indicates in their "Information for Authors" in 2007 that page charges are $65 per printed page for members of Northwest Scientific Association.

OPEN ACCESS. JOO includes information for anyone to use, not for commercial gain or for proprietary interests. Thus, before a paper is submitted to JOO, the author needs to consider Copyright statements about how his or her paper can be used (see p. 3 in 1993 JOO 1:1-34).

The author is encouraged to use a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License with a logo Some Rights Reserved. With this license, the Copyright holder grants free permission to copy, distribute, and display the author's article or to make derivative works, as long as the author's article is cited as the source. Such a license was recommended in March 2008 by the Public Library of Science (PLOS): Open Access.

If the author wishes a very restrictive Copyright, the author should not submit the article to JOO because it will not be acceptable. Upon publication, an issue of JOO will be submitted to the Oregon State University Libraries Natural Resources Digital Library (ScholarsArchive@OSU), the digital repository for this Journal, to be freely available. If an author restricts the use of the article too much, it can not be made available on ScholarsArchive@OSU.

DUPLICATE PUBLICATION.--A major concern is that some authors are unethically publishing the same material more than once (e.g., see "Ethics, Rights, and Permissions" in R. A. Day, 1979, How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, ISI Press; 1982 Condor 84:135; p. 3 in 1993 JOO 1:1-34).

If material has been published elsewhere, JOO is not interested in re-publishing it. Further, material published in JOO can not ethically be published elsewhere, unless the other publisher is fully aware of its publication in JOO (e.g., see introductions to "Instructions to Authors" in recent issues of Condor or Wilson Bulletin). Thus, if an author may wish to eventually publish his or her research in a journal of larger distribution than JOO, the author should be cautious in deciding what material to include in his or her article in JOO.

Since JOO is designed to archive data or data reports, it may be possible for an author to publish his or her basic observational data in JOO, with minimal analyses, and later publish a paper in a larger journal that is based on extensive analyses of the data in the JOO article. If doing so, the JOO article must be cited in the paper submitted to a larger journal as where the author's censuses or observations are archived. It is also essential that the author candidly and explicitly indicate in his or her letter to the editor of the larger journal what material has been published in JOO and include copies (or links) of his or her JOO article for the editor and referees to inspect. If the overlap in publication is minimal, and the author points out that JOO is of very limited distribution and that the JOO article serves as an archive for observations that are not appropriate in the larger journal, then the editor may allow the author to publish his or her article, if it is accepted.

In any case, a potential author for JOO should be cognizant of ethical concerns and recognize that he or she takes some ethical risks in publishing in JOO, if he or she later decides to try to publish the same research in another journal.

If the JOO editor thinks that an author's paper would be acceptable in a larger journal, the JOO editor will tell the author to try to publish it elsewhere. The JOO editor does not have the time or money to publish material that could be published elsewhere; sales of JOO do not pay for the cost of printing it.

REVIEW OF ARTICLES. JOO is not peer-reviewed and will generally only be reviewed by the Editor. Thus, the author needs to email a copy of the paper to the Editor in the style of recent JOO articles (see JOO collection at ScholarsArchive@OSU).

ERROR CHECKING. To err is human, and authors (and editors) are human. Because the author is ultimately responsible for the accuracy of his or her paper, the author is encouraged to double- or triple-check his or her data each step of the way from recording the data to transcribing and analyzing the data and to checking proofs of an article. Errors that are caught early are much easier to correct than those that slip through and riddle the results of a whole paper.

CONVENTIONS.--Measurements should be given in English measurements, followed in parentheses by the equivalent metric measurement. All times should be in Pacific Standard Time (PST) by the 24 hour clock (i.e., add 1200 to times starting with 1 PM [1300]). Dates in text should be in the continental style (19 May 1993). Scientific names can be given when the species is first mentioned or in a Table.

Instructions for Articles with Less than about 10 Observations/Site

In general, articles with less than 10 observations/site will not be acceptable in JOO. Thus, Big Day results or County or Year lists will usually not be acceptable, unless repeated observations are available for individual sites. However, an unofficial Christmas Bird Count (CBC) not published in American Birds or Oregon Birds or fewer than 10 systematic observations for a site prior to 1970 or for a significant site since 1970 (e.g., 1994 JOO 2:162) will probably be acceptable. Few observations were recorded prior to 1970, so they are particularly of interest.

If acceptable, the article should include a concise title less than about 15 words that is descriptive and which includes the location and county where the observations occurred as well as "Oregon." Including the year(s) of observations in the title is also useful. The rest of the article can be a simple listing of the observations like those given for a CBC in American Birds or a table with the date, time and weather conditions during observations, and the species observed.

Instructions for Articles with 10 or More Observations/Site

For an example, see 1996 JOO 6:681-708.

TITLE.--The title should be concise (e.g., less than 15 words), descriptive, and give the location and county where the observations occurred as well as "Oregon." Including the year(s) of observations in the title is also useful.

ABSTRACT.--If the paper is longer than about five pages, a short paragraph that serves as a brief summary and that can stand by itself should be given. Examples of items to be included are the years in which observations were made, the number of species recorded, and, if known, the species that nested.

INTRODUCTION.--This can be a brief paragraph or two describing the background, scope, and purpose of the observations. Documenting the birds present at any site is a sufficient purpose for a JOO article.

AUTHORS' DIVISION OF LABOR.--If there is more than one author, then this can be a concise explanation of who made the observations and who wrote the paper, or how otherwise the duties were shared or divided.

STUDY AREA.--The author should, if feasible, complete the following tabulation to describe the study area at the start of this section:

If the author can't fill out all these categories, consult the editor.

The Study Area section should then give a description of the topography and vegetation (e.g., species and approximate height and coverage) at the study site. Details about the site are welcome, but if they are not feasible, then the paper may still be acceptable.

Also to be included are descriptions of the sources of human disturbance, the presence or absence of bird seed or hummingbird feeders or nest boxes, and the presence of cats. The goal is to try to describe the important characteristics of a site that may influence which birds may be found there.

METHODS.--It is important that the methods of observation are described as fully as is feasible. Thus, include details about observation methods that may have influenced what was detected such as the time of day of observations, the duration of each observation, optical or other equipment that was used in making observations, and what bird species were or were not looked for (e.g., only waterbirds may have been observed).

OBSERVATION EFFORT CRITERION (OEC).--This was formerly termed Tolerable Observation Effort (TOE). It is an arbitrary measure of whether or not observations should be considered as presence/absence or only as presence data (e.g., see TOE in p. 14-16 in 1993 JOO 1:1-34). Although this section is essential, it may be best completed after consultation between the author and the editor.

A month that satisfies the Observation Effort Criterion is:

LIMITATIONS OF OBSERVATIONS.--JOO takes a "Warts and All" approach to research because observational research has limitations (e.g., p. 10-19 and 28-31 in 1993 JOO 1:1-34). Accordingly, it is important that they are identified, so that data can be more accurately interpreted. Authors not comfortable with discussing the limitations of their observations should publish their work elsewhere.

Examples of limitations listed in p. 28-31 of 1993 JOO 1:1-34 include:

In a paper for JOO, the author is urged to take a "Warts and All Approach" and forthrightly mention limitations that may have influenced the results of his or her observations. The author can do so without fear that this will make his or her paper unacceptable for JOO because the editor recognizes that no research is perfect, and the goal of JOO is to document bird records for sites, even if data have some limitations. The archival value of data is increased, not diminished, if limitations are given.

GENERAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.--This optional section should focus only on what the author actually found, not on long, theoretical expositions. In JOO, the author's results alone are enough to justify publication. If a paper is short, this section could be left out.

Potential sections include:

TAXA ACCOUNTS.--This is a very important section, but the author should examine examples in JOO or consult the editor before preparing it.

FIGURES.--Figures should be as small as possible while remaining legible because they will not be reduced. Each figure legend should be on the same page and above the figure. Lettering should be clearly legible and can be typed.

One figure should be a simple map of the study area, preferably all drawn to the same scale. This figure should include the scale (e.g., 1 inch=500 ft), observation points or routes, major features of the study area, and the direction of north.

A few photographic prints or digital JPEG or GIF files that illustrate the study area may be acceptable, but the quality of reproduction may be mediocre when printed. If photos are to be included, the date of the photo, the angle of view, and the magnification of the camera lens should be given along with a brief description of what is shown in the photo's legend.

TABLES.--Tables will generally be placed in a section with any figures after the text.

Two tables that are recommended because they illustrate the amount and consistency of observation effort as well as giving some results include:

If the author has a question about preparing tables, he or she should look at examples in JOO and/or consult the editor.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.--People that made or assisted in making observations or who helped prepare the paper can be briefly thanked.

LITERATURE CITED.--Full citations to references cited in the paper should be listed here. See articles in the most recent JOO for examples.

Return to Menu of Gahmken Press' Journal of Oregon Ornithology Home Page or to Gahmken Press' Yaquina Studies in Natural History Home Page.


Last modified: 17 June 2008

Providing the information in JOO has only been possible through the efforts of many people. They have served as links in the chain between an observer of birds and the sharing and interpreting of his or her observations with you, the reader. If any links in this fragile chain are broken, these observations are lost.

First in the chain are the observers. They recorded and shared their bird observations without monetary or career compensation. They shared their observations because they enjoyed watching and learning about birds directly or indirectly through the analyses of their observations.

Another link in the chain are the authors of articles. Unless observations are organized and written up, observations can not be shared.

Lucy Biggs of Eugene graciously provided the link of Internet accessibility of JOO first, during 1995-1997. She shared her time, effort, and dedication to make it possible for JOO to be placed on her Oregon Birders On-Line (OBOL) Home Page. She did the initial HTML coding for the menus and JOO Nos. 1-5. Her assistance and patience have been crucial in making these files available through early February 1997, when I moved the files to my web site. Her encouragement and example inspired me and helped me learn to try to be a webmaster.

A very important accessibility link was forged on 19 March 2008, when Janet Webster, head librarian at the Oregon State University (OSU) Hatfield Marine Science Center Guin Library, and other OSU Librarians added JOO as a collection to their ScholarsArchive@OSU digital repository. They scanned photocopies and prepared the PDF files that made this possible. I am very grateful that ScholarsArchive@OSU can allow JOO to be widely available after I am unable to do so--to maintain this link of accessibility is critical for future readers to find information in JOO.

Others have also helped JOO in various ways. Kathy Merrifield's drawings graced the front covers of JOO No. 5 and No. 6. Janet Webster, Susan Gilmont, and Judy Mullen of the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center Guin Library provided research library assistance. Oregon-Aqua Foods (now defunct), the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center, and the Bureau of Land Management at Yaquina Head Outstanding Natural Area provided jobs (especially those that were part-time) that allowed me to work on JOO and other projects on my own time. My parents Don and Ruth Bayer (both deceased) also provided support that helped me publish JOO.

I thank these people and others that I unintentionally have forgotten for making JOO possible.

Finally, I am grateful that JOO exists because I have come to realize how fragile life and the publishing or finishing of projects like JOO can be. My full-time job since 1996 and other projects have taken me away from completing new issues of JOO.

Go to Menu of Gahmken Press' Journal of Oregon Ornithology Home Page, ScholarsArchive@OSU's Journal of Oregon Ornithology Page, or Page.

Email comments to the JOO editor, Range Bayer of Bayer Research.